█ SKEMA ★ ESC高商名校 █
█ 公立大学直入项目申请 █
IFAA艺术设计/时尚奢侈品/计算机/
营销管理等,BAC+1至+9热招
★☆Cafa-Formations☆★
法国波尔多专业品酒师学院
★IESIG FLE★ 十五年教学经验
巴黎性价比最高的法语学校
顶级高商 公立大学 艺术院校
2018年春季入学现已开始招生
WELLER高商,中国认证本硕招生
红酒/奢侈品/旅游/市场传媒/金融
█ A.A.A.国际语言中心 █
法语学校◆法国签证◆法国实习
2017秋季入学火热申请中!!!
顶级高商★时尚艺术★工程师
UFEC国际商贸学院-成功之门
FLE/Prépa/Bac+1 - Bac+9
EEEA博士教育
PhD-DBA-MBA, bac+4至bac+9
2018春季入学申请进行时
艺术院校 公立大学 顶级高商
★排名高商ISC,学历认证★
★本硕连读MBA项目18个月★
❖ISMAC❖性价比最高的私校
★更多免费服务等你来拿★
★★★CAMPUS LANGUES★★★
法语/英语/备考/国际班级
巴黎工程师ESILV官方直录
巴黎高商EMLV文凭中国认证
SOFRA 索法 ★ 留法院校咨询
顶级工程师/TOP高商/优质大学
❖IBSM❖法国高等商学院
红酒旅游/视觉传达/服装设计
●★ IPLME----亿搏商学院★●
顶级高商|文凭认证|公立直录
█公立大学专业申请█
ICD认证高等商学院巴黎图卢兹
★★★ INSEEC高等商学院 ★★★
官方直录◆文凭认证◆优质教学
12
返回列表 发新帖回复
查看: 1520|回复: 26

[非常观点] 关注:美科研机构对湖南一学校24名儿童转基因大米人体实验

[复制链接]

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-19 14:48:34 | 显示全部楼层
橙色路灯 发表于 2012-9-19 09:26
用人做实验,无论转基因还是药品,能不能在该地进行,首先要看当地法律及行政部门是否允许。有很多试验, ...

你这种说法是本末倒置(非贬义)。
当地法律行政的规定是以科学伦理学为标准制定出来的。
用活体做实验,不管是人,还是老鼠,还是猴子,首先要问的是这个实验是否必须要用活体来做,不能一味的以科学为幌子盲目实验。尤其是儿童身上的实验,更要慎重。
更何况这个黄金大米实验对人类知识的增加并不是一个特别大的贡献。

现在对老鼠实验,有La règle des 3 R : réduire, raffiner, remplacer,这个是全世界的规定。
http://extranet.inserm.fr/recher ... -raffiner-remplacer
何况是人。

另外题外话,转基因食品对人体并没有神乎其神的危害,我认为危害主要是对生态上的和经济活动上的(比如垄断),对人体的危害是可能会引发过敏反应(如果引入了外源蛋白)。但是所谓「毒」我认为是没有的。人体实验规则和某具体用于人体实验的药物/食品是否有毒是两个问题。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-19 14:59:18 | 显示全部楼层
Science 也报道了
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/337/6100/1281.long
但是science需要权限,下面是全文

GM Research
Charges Fly, Confusion Reigns Over Golden Rice Study in Chinese Children

    Mara Hvistendahl,
    Martin Enserink

Figure
View larger version:

    In this page
    In a new window

    Download PowerPoint Slide for Teaching

Scary science.

A cartoon from news agency Xinhua shows a U.S. researcher feeding genetically modified rice to a Chinese child.
"CREDIT: ZHU HUIQING"

SHANGHAI, CHINA—A U.S.-funded study in which Chinese schoolchildren were fed genetically modified (GM) rice 4 years ago has triggered a firestorm in the Chinese media. Newspaper columnists accused the main authors, both of Tufts University in Boston, of using children as “guinea pigs”; some stories likened the study to Japanese biowarfare experiments on Chinese prisoners in World War II. The furor has prompted several Chinese collaborators on the study to distance themselves from the work, and one of them was suspended.

The criticism targets a trial of golden rice, a controversial crop developed to fight vitamin A deficiency (Science, 25 April 2008, p. 468). The results of the trial, funded by the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), were published online to little notice by The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on 1 August. But on 29 August, Greenpeace China claimed in a press release that the study had violated a Chinese government “decision to abort plans for the trial,” which it called “a scandal of international proportions.”

The group offered little evidence to support its allegations, but in a 5 September statement, Tufts University said it is “deeply concerned” and is conducting a “thorough review.” Pending the outcome, an interview with the paper's first author, Guangwen Tang, would be “not appropriate,” a spokesperson says. (Tang is a Chinese-born researcher at a USDA-funded nutrition lab at Tufts.) The paper's last author, renowned nutrition scientist Robert Russell, was out earlier this week due to family circumstances.

The study had come under fire before. In 2008, the advocacy group GM Free Cymru (Wales) sounded the alarm, and 22 researchers decried the study as a breach of medical ethics in an open letter to Russell, arguing that golden rice was unsafe to eat. In a 2009 letter, an NIDDK communication officer said the study had been approved by ethical panels at Tufts and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, that there were “many safeguards” to protect participants, and that the U.S. Department of State had cleared the trial after a review for “any potentially negative foreign policy implications.”

By that time, the trial was already finished, says Adrian Dubock, manager of the Golden Rice Project in Dornach, Switzerland. (While not involved in the study, Dubock says he has followed it closely.) But Greenpeace says it had assumed the Chinese government halted the trial in 2008, citing an e-mail from that year from an official in the Chinese agriculture ministry's GMO Biological Safety Administration Office. The e-mail said the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Agriculture had been instructed to ask the Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences to stop the study. The ministry's office did not respond to interview requests.

Golden rice was created in the 1990s as an attempt to help people worldwide suffering from vitamin A deficiency, which is estimated to cause blindness in more than a quarter of a million children annually. By making rice produce β-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A, researchers hoped to solve that problem in countries where rice is a staple.

The study in China sought to find out how efficiently β-carotene from golden rice is converted to vitamin A once it's ingested. To be relevant, Dubock says, the trial had to be done in a rice-growing country and in children, who are most vulnerable to vitamin A shortages. According to the published study, the researchers fed 72 children either golden rice, spinach, or capsules with β-carotene in oil. They reported that golden rice was as good a vitamin source as the capsules and better than spinach—a “fantastic result,” Dubock says, because it means modest amounts of rice will provide benefits.

In the wake of the uproar, the Chinese co-authors have denied their involvement. On 5 September, the state-run People's Daily quoted Hu Yuming, a researcher at the Hunan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as saying he was “completely baffled” as to why his name appeared on the paper. “I am unaware of that paper,” another co-author, Wang Yin of the Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, reportedly told the same newspaper. (Neither could be reached for comment by Science.)

The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC), however, confirmed that the Chinese researchers, including the CDC's Yin Shi'an, collaborated with Tang, but stated that they only gave the students spinach and capsules; the golden rice part was a Tufts project of which Yin had been unaware, the statement suggested. Nonetheless, the CDC suspended Yin for “inconsistencies” in his story.

The Chinese CDC account contradicts that of the Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, which on 7 September said that Yin was listed as a principal investigator, with the academy's Wang, on an agreement the academy signed with Tufts in 2004 to research golden rice. (Yin declined to be interviewed.)

Dubock says he has received information that the Chinese researchers had been “intimidated” by home visits from police. “Of course they knew” that golden rice was being tested, he says. He calls Greenpeace's actions “callous and cynical” and says there's a “xenophobic” element to the outrage. One cartoon on the website of state news agency Xinhua showed a curly-haired scientist wearing a tie emblazoned with the American flag, staring through a microscope while dropping unnaturally colored kernels of rice into a Chinese child's mouth.

China's leaders are generally supportive of GM crop research (Science, 5 September 2008, p. 1279). The new controversy could mean “short-term adverse effects,” says Huang Jikun, director of the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy in Beijing. But ultimately, he says, “China's GM technology will continue to develop as the nation has planned.”
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

 楼主| 发表于 2012-9-19 17:27:42 | 显示全部楼层
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-19 18:46:44 | 显示全部楼层
firedd 发表于 2012-9-19 16:27
http://www.leparisien.fr/societe/consommation-d-ogm-une-etude-revele-un-risque-de-mortalite-accru-19 ...

是我理解错了还是怎么,这paper说得是转基因植物因为转入了抗除草剂基因,因此大量除草剂残留,是除草剂导致一系列问题,文章里面测的是除草剂的毒性,不是转基因玉米的毒性。

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=22200534

你想要paper 的话给我email

In this work, we have chosen to test one of the most used pesticides round the world. Roundup (R) formulations are non selective herbicides composed of mixtures of glyphosate (G) and adjuvants such as polyoxyethylene tallowamine (POEA) (Benachour et al., 2007b). These compounds, with the G metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are major contaminants in surface waters with levels reaching for instance 24 ppb for G in groundwater (IFEN, 2007). Moreover, these residues also concentrate in approximately 80% genetically modified plants grown for food and feed, which are rendered R tolerant, (尤其被用于转基因植物,因为转基因植物具有R抗性up to 400 ppm (maximal residual levels, U.S. EPA, 1998). We tested here R from 1 ppm to agricultural working dilutions on rat testicular cells.

点评

突然觉得这样就解释得通很多实验说转基因有害什么的了!因为作物是植物的一种,所以不能用一般广泛除草剂的。只有抗除草剂的转基因植物敢用  发表于 2012-9-19 18:49
上面是intro里的,不是abstract里的  发表于 2012-9-19 18:48
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-20 10:18:42 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 橙色路灯 于 2012-9-20 12:05 编辑
雅歌 发表于 2012-9-19 14:48
你这种说法是本末倒置(非贬义)。
当地法律行政的规定是以科学伦理学为标准制定出来的。
用活体做实验, ...


有些法律及行政法规的确是以科学理论为依据,但是,不同的体制下,法律对民众身体健康人权维护的标准是有非常大区别的。有些刚研制出的新药或转基因事物,只有理论研究是不充分的,对人体是否适应还必须通过一定实验来检验。既然是“实验”,就存在一定风险。不同法律体制下,这种“风险成本”是有巨大差距的。正是欧美国家的体制及法律对民众的保护远远高于发展中国家,“风险成本”存在巨大差异,世界上的医药公司和实验室才把试验场选在发展中国家,而不是因为他们的国民不习惯消费那个东西。即使美国人吃米的不多,3亿人中找24个也并不难。

你提到的转基因食品是否有“毒”的问题。我感觉,1,肯定没有我们传统意义上说的那种“毒”,但是,对人体是否有害,仍然存在争议。我不是这个专业,对这个争议无法参与。2,美国人之所以需要用那24个儿童做实验,而不是在美国本土作,是否可以说明,他们自己也不敢百分白确定是否对人体有害呢?万一被证明对人体有害,在中国他们可以付出更小的成本来补偿参与者。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-20 14:19:24 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 雅歌 于 2012-9-20 13:24 编辑

重新看了看,昨天回帖我直接查的paper,才写的上面的帖子。先看看新paper再说
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-22 21:44:27 | 显示全部楼层
firedd 发表于 2012-9-19 16:27
http://www.leparisien.fr/societe/consommation-d-ogm-une-etude-revele-un-risque-de-mortalite-accru-19 ...

费加罗登反驳评论了
http://bbs.xineurope.com/thread-1513587-1-1.html
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-9-22 23:27:21 | 显示全部楼层
雅歌 发表于 2012-9-22 21:44
费加罗登反驳评论了
http://bbs.xineurope.com/thread-1513587-1-1.html

无论正方还是反方,都必须承认一个事实:到目前为止,转基因食品是否对人体有害,还存在争议。

正是一些潜在的危害还没有得到充分证实,存在潜在风险,所以,美国科研机构才会用24名中国儿童而不是美国儿童做实验。

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-12-6 19:26:04 | 显示全部楼层
小鱼在danser 发表于 2012-9-1 17:40
他们的父母都疯了吗?

事实证明,4楼的推测并非无中生有。

湖南转基因大米试验未告知家长 3人被撤职
http://news.qq.com/a/20121206/00 ... 012&ptlang=2052
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-12-9 04:29:57 | 显示全部楼层
俺们这里的超市还有黄金大米在出售,不过乏人问津
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

新浪微博达人勋

发表于 2012-12-9 20:34:52 | 显示全部楼层
专家将黄金大米偷偷拌进米饭中让小学生吃
http://news.qq.com/a/20121209/000698.htm
12月6日,中国疾病预防控制中心、浙江省医学科学院和湖南省疾病预防控制中心联合发布了对黄金大米的调查结果。2008年6月,湖南省衡南县江口镇中心小学的25名小学生的确在实验中食用了黄金大米,至此黄金大米实验的迷雾终于被揭开。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

游客  发表于 2017-10-7 22:18:48
?For application builders, iPad mini presents a whole lot more opportunity than challenge
Some people like a pocket-sized notebook, and some people like carrying round a legal pad. That's why for years, Moleskine has offered a dozen sizes for its notebooks, and convinced bookstores to carry them all. But despite the fact that Apple's iPad has replaced the notebook for a wide range of, it's always just come in a single size - until now. The company's new iPad mini represents a new size between the apple iphone and iPad, and despite the fact that it runs 275,000 iPad applications, it's got a several people a modest confused. Daring Fireball creator (and noted Apple evangelist) John Gruber tweeted. "It runs iPad applications, but the iPad Mini feels like a big apple iphone in use."
And also the 7.9-inch kind factor does feel really different. Paired having a big iBooks update. the iPad mini would seem aimed alot more at consumption than development (like Amazon's 7-inch Kindle Fire), yet, later in its presentation, Apple demoed the drawing application Paper on its new product. Perhaps it's simply just a smaller iPad for people that want a smaller iPad for any quantity of reasons. Or maybe it's Apple's e-reader that also does other stuff. So what is the iPad mini's utility, and does that make an iOS developer's job any significantly more confusing?
A newfound utility
"A lot of what we're really excited about is increasing mobility," FiftyThree co-founder and Paper designer Andrew S. Allen claimed for the Vergecast after Apple's event. "Having a smaller screen signifies you may take it a number of additional places and really feel a very little less awkward than pulling out your giant iPad. We're all about capturing ideas as they happen within the moment." Since iPad two applications run for the mini right out for the box, there will be no shortage of ways to engage with the new machine. Yet, nobody wants applications that aren't really created for your machine they're choosing. Paper gives you merely a smaller canvas, although some applications must scale down dozens of buttons and UI components.
"[The iPad mini] will be a concern for applications that did a poor job designing for your larger product, and for applications that are too busy and have too loads of things going on on one particular screen," one-time Flipboard for apple iphone designer Craig Mod explained over the Vergecast yesterday. He called out inventory trading applications and money applications as experiences that may get significantly diminished and perhaps become illegible on the the iPad mini's smaller screen. Yet, on the same time, he mentioned that since the iPad mini's screen is the same aspect ratio as its iPad brethren, designing for it may possibly yield a nice bonus for builders. "If you structure for a 7-inch screen to start with, then it will probably perform marvelous over a 10-inch," but does that logic apply after you flip things all around?
"If you style and design for a 7-inch screen number one, then it will probably succeed effective on the 10-inch."
Mod may have predicted a new trend in iOS application style: focusing for the iPad mini working experience to start with, and then scaling up from there - but not almost everyone agrees. "I don't think Apple wants builders to focus on the iPad mini specifically," Quotebook developer Matthew Bischoff says. "It complicates things for them immensely if people launch doing that." Pocket developer Steve Streza says, "We haven't seen any updates to Apple's developer equipment yet. It's unlikely that there will be a 'third' part of the universal application. But what I'm hoping for is some way to programmatically determine that the unit the application is managing on is the iPad mini. Then we can make changes to font sizes and stuff if we will need to."
Worrisome touch targets
In shrinking the iPad mini's screen, Apple has effectively also shrunk the size of "touch targets" - touchable areas over buttons inside applications. Just two years ago, Steve Jobs stated, "This size is useless unless you include sandpaper so people can sand their fingers down to the quarter of their size." Apparently to Apple that's no longer the case. "Will some buttons be too modest relating to the smaller display?" Grades designer Jeremy Olson asks. "We will be needing it in our hands to really know for sure, but I suspect most applications won't have to change noticeably, if anything." Apple's presentation confirms Olson's suspicions. The corporation usually demos a handful of new applications when it launches products at new variety factors, but not for your iPad mini. Instead, Apple chose to demo applications that currently exist, like Yelp, to demonstrate how they do the job just fine to the mini with no help from the application developer.
Even one particular game developer we spoke with was unfazed. "If people have been following Apple's 'minimum interactive area of 44x44 pixels' [for buttons inside apps], then they should be absolutely fine," claimed Matt Rix, who develops Trainyard for iOS. "Unfortunately, a lot of people don't follow that rule all the time (like Apple themselves - just seem for the purchase button on applications around the Application Retailer application), so it'll be interesting to see just how big an issue it really becomes," he included.
The "touch targets" about the iPad mini are apparently now about the size of those on an apple iphone, yet apple iphone applications are created for a significantly smaller screen from the get-go. And what about that tiny bezel? Since the iPad mini has a a great deal smaller bezel than the iPad, stray fingers seem to be a good deal additional doubtless to accidentally flip webpages despite the fact that you're reading in portrait mode. It's a problem tons of reading equipment have faced, from the Kindle to the Kobo. But, on its iPad mini style site, Apple says :
iPad mini intelligently recognizes whether your thumb is simply resting about the display or whether you're intentionally interacting with it. It's the kind of detail you'll detect - by not noticing it. And it's a incredible example of how Apple hardware and software perform together to give you the most popular working experience doable.
Only time will tell if errant button presses will be extra frequent over the iPad mini, but Apple appears to be to by now acknowledge at least 50 percent of your problem. We'll really have to wait and see how iPad mini differentiates amongst screen-edge drawing or gestures (like in Paper) and simply holding the edge in the screen although reading an iBook. "I've come to really trust Apple's decisions about these sorts of things," Application Cubby founder David Barnard says. "They really take incredible care inside the overall UX of their products and I don't think we're going to see them make a huge mistake like utilizing smallish bezels that develop supplemental accidental taps."
Apple's new pad
It could possibly be argued that it's worth owning an apple iphone and an iPad, but owning all three new equipment sounds ridiculous. Or maybe not - if you're the kind of person that carries all-around three differently sized notebooks - and in case you have deep pockets. Some people prefer reading with a sizeable screen, and some on the tiny screen. It's a huge pain for builders to develop applications for three distinct screen resolutions, and fortunately, it doesn't glimpse like they'll really need to. "The present iPad application we have will function fine for iPad mini owners," Streza says. "We'll make any style tweaks we ought once we have the product. In accordance with what we've seen on Android, the 7-inch tablet appears pretty popular for reading Pocket." The iPad mini could open up applications like Pocket to millions a good deal more people. Yet, builders would be required to make an inherent design and style flexibility into their applications so they look and feel OK on the four, 7.9, or 9.7-inch screen. Either way, an individual greater iOS product is extraordinary news for builders. Olson says, "This thing is going to sell like hotcakes, and that's a huge moreover for us."
A lot more from The Verge
回复 支持 反对

使用道具

高级模式
B Color Image Link Quote Code Smilies |上传

本版积分规则

;

关于我们| 服务条款| 联系我们| 广告服务| 复制新欧洲| 欧团网| 游游旅行| Cookies| ( 沪ICP备15032081号 )   

© 2002-2017 E.CAN Inc.

快速回复
返回列表
便民工具
投诉建议
APP下载
微博分享
微信分享
寻伴同驴
返回顶部